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4 Contoh Makalah Bahasa Inggris yang Benar Berbagai Topik untuk Referensi

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Bagi siswa sekolah atau mahasiswa, salah satu tugas yang biasanya diberikan oleh guru dan dosen adalah membuat makalah bahasa Inggris. Masih bingung cara menyusunnya? Simak berbagai contohnya berikut ini, ya!

Makalah adalah karya ilmiah yang pembahasannya berfokus pada masalah atau topik tertentu melalui tahap penelitian atau observasi.

Hasil penelitian tersebut kemudian disusun dan dirangkum dengan sistematika penulisan yang tepat.

Jadi, sebelum membuat makalah atau paper, penulis tentunya harus menentukan topik atau permasalahan yang hendak diangkat.

Pada bagian makalah terdiri dari struktur makalah yang susunannya dapat berbeda-beda tiap institusi.

Hal ini tidak jauh berbeda dengan menulis jurnal atau karya tulis ilmiah lainnya.

Nah, bagi kamu yang masih bingung bagaimana cara membuat makalah, simak dulu strukturnya berikut ini, ya.

Struktur Makalah Bahasa Inggris

Property People, tiap institusi pendidikan memiliki format penyusunan makalah yang bervariasi.

Namun, struktur paper tersebut biasanya tidak jauh berbeda, kok.

Contohnya struktur paper American Psychological Association (APA) yang terdiri dari title page, abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussion, references, table, dan appendix.

Namun, ada juga struktur paper yang bisa kamu ikuti dengan mudah dan sederhana.

Berikut struktur makalah bahasa Inggris.

Struktur paper:

  • Cover page
  • Title page
  • Chapter I Introduction
  • Chapter II Discussion
  • Chapter III Conclusion dan Suggestions
  • References

Melansir myperfectwords.com dan sumber lain, langsung saja simak contoh makalah bahasa Inggris di bawah ini.

Contoh makalah dalam bahasa Inggris tersebut beragam topik mulai dari pendidikan dan lainnya.

Contoh Makalah Bahasa Inggris

Di bawah ini adalah beberapa makalah bahasa inggris atau contoh makalah bahasa inggris yang bisa dijadikan inspirasi kamu :

1. Makalah Bahasa Inggris Singkat

Berikut adalah contoh makalah bahasa inggris yang pertama :

Behavioral Study of Obedience

Abstract

There are few facts about the role of obedience when committing acts against one’s personal conscience (1961). Most theories suggest that only very disturbed people are capable of administering pain to an ordinary citizen if they are ordered to do so. Our experiment tested people’s obedience to authority. The results showed that most obey all orders given by the authority-figure, despite their unwillingness. The conclusion is that, contrary to common belief, personal ethics mean little when pitted against authority.

Introduction

Current theories focus on personal characteristics to explain wrong-doing and how someone can intentionally harm others. In a survey, professionals such as doctors, psychologist and laymen predicted that a small proportion of a population (1-3%) would harm others if ordered to do so.

In the recent war trial with Adolph Eichmann, he claims to only have been “following orders”. The author wanted to test this claim. Can people harm others because they are merely obeying orders? Can people be ordered to act against their moral convictions?

The experiment will test whether a person can keep administering painful electric shocks to another person just because they are ordered to do so. The expectation is that very few will keep giving shocks, and that most participants will disobey the order.

Methods

Participants

There were 30 male participants. They were recruited by advertisement in a newspaper and were paid $4.50.

Instruments

A “shock generator” was used to trick the participants into thinking that they were giving an electric shock to another person in another room. The shock generator had switches labeled with different voltages, starting at 30 volts and increasing in 15-volt increments all the way up to 450 volts. The switches were also labeled with terms which reminded the participant of how dangerous the shocks were.

Procedures

The participant met another “participant” in the waiting room before the experiment. The other “participant” was an actor. Each participant got the role as a “teacher” who would then deliver a shock to the actor (“learner”) every time an incorrect answer to a question was produced. The participant believed that he was delivering real shocks to the learner.

The learner would pretend to be shocked. As the experiment progressed, the teacher would hear the learner plead to be released and complain about a heart condition. Once the 300-volt level had been reached, the learner banged on the wall and demanded to be released. Beyond this point, the learner became completely silent and refused to answer any more questions. The experimenter then instructed the participant to treat this silence as an incorrect response and deliver a further shock.
When asking the experimenter if they should stop, they were instructed to continue.

Results

Of the 40 participants in the study, 26 delivered the maximum shocks. 14 persons did not obey the experimenter and stopped before reaching the highest levels. All 40 participants continued to give shocks up to 300 volts.

Discussion/Conclusion

Most of the participants became very agitated, stressed and angry at the experimenter. Many continued to follow orders throughout even though they were clearly uncomfortable. The study shows that people are able to harm others intentionally if ordered to do so. It provides evidence that this dynamic is far more important than previously believed, and that personal ethics are less predictive of such behavior.

References

 

Sumber contoh makalah inggris : explorable.com

2. Contoh Makalah Bahasa Inggris

makalah bahasa inggris makalah bahasa inggris makalah bahasa inggris makalah bahasa inggris makalah bahasa inggris makalah bahasa inggris




 

Sumber makalah b inggris atau contoh makalah berbahasa inggris : belajaringgris.net

3. Contoh Makalah dalam Bahasa Inggris

contoh makalah bahasa inggris contoh makalah bahasa inggris contoh makalah bahasa inggris contoh makalah bahasa inggris

Sumber contoh makalah singkat atau makalah inggris : myperfectwords.com

4. Contoh Makalah dalam Bahasa Inggris

The Effects of Food Insecurity on School Performance

Abstract

Poverty affects more than 41 million Americans every day – most of whom are children. Food insecurity and undernutrition have a confirmed correlation to slower cognitive development for children under three years of age. Hungry children cannot form skills as quickly as their peers due to both deprivation of vital nutrients and poor concentration. But, there has been little focus on how these effects scale up in terms of school performance past kindergarten.

Public schools have several programs in place to mitigate the problem of food insecurity, including free breakfast and reduced lunch. We surveyed 100 students at Arbor Elementary School over the course of one school year to see how effective these programs were in improving their academic performance and general contentment in school. The results of these surveys reveal how long children are academically affected by systemic food insecurity, even when their stomachs are currently full.

Introduction

Poverty and poor school performance are two problems that keep Americans from reaching their full potential. Alongside poverty is food insecurity, which affects millions of households – and children – every day. But could focusing on one problem help to solve the other? We wanted to find out whether programs designed to reduce food insecurity for targeted children would improve their school performance, and therefore, give them a more successful start in life.

Background

Food insecurity is defined by the U.S. Department of Agriculture as a lack of regular access to food due to one’s financial status. According to the Department’s report “Household Food Security in the United States in 2016,” 12.3 percent of American households, or approximately 41 million people, experienced food insecurity at some point in 2016 (USDA 2017). The Right to Food was included in the United Nations’ 1948 Declaration of Human Rights, while the Food and Agriculture Organization measures food insecurity on a scale from mild (uncertainty about obtaining food) to severe (no access to food for an entire day). (FAO 2019).

Methodology

We used qualitative methods to gather data about students who may experience food insecurity. These methods included surveys with various questions that assessed whether students felt hungry, insecure about their next meal, and/or distracted from classwork due to hunger (Appendix A). The surveys were distributed to 100 students in fourth and fifth grade (10-11 years old) at Arbor Elementary School, 50 of whom were recipients of Title 1 funding via free and reduced lunch. The remaining 50 were a control group of students who were not identified as socioeconomically disadvantaged. The students completed these surveys at the beginning of the school year, then once every two months until the end of the school year, for a total of five survey periods.

Results

The survey results indicated a strong correlation between school performance and food insecurity (Appendix D). Students who answered affirmatively in the surveys were consistently among the lower performing members of their class. Contrasted with their peers who were not identified as socioeconomically disadvantaged, these students identified anxiety about their next meal as one of the top three concerns in their minds. Their participation in programs like free breakfast and reduced lunch helped to assuage daily hunger and general happiness, but their concern over food insecurity remained.

Conclusion

The problem with systemic food insecurity goes beyond distracting hunger for young students. Even after they’ve had a nutritious breakfast and lunch at school, concern over dinner was distracting from their school performance. The final survey period, taken just before the beginning of summer break, indicated how much food insecurity can dictate a child’s anticipation of a long period without school – and therefore, regular meals.

Having a lower school performance later in life could place these children as future parents in food-insecure households, thus perpetuating the cycle. Solving the cyclical problem of poverty and school performance requires participation from all stakeholders, including schools, city governments, and state and federal legislation that works to move following generations out of the cycle.

Sumber contoh makalah dalam bahasa inggris : yourdictionary.com

***

Semoga bermanfaat untuk contoh makalah bahasa inggrisnya atau contoh paper bahasa inggris ya, Property People.

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Ilham Budhiman

Penulis 99.co Indonesia. Lulusan sastra daerah yang berkarier sebagai wartawan sejak 2016 dengan fokus liputan terkait hukum, logistik, dan properti nasional.

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